The paper looks at leadership styles as the most discussed sub-section of leadership in its literature. This approach examines the extent to which leaders should involve their subordinates in decision-making processes. The humane style includes modesty and helping others. Hollander, Edwin P. Conformity, Status, and Idiosyncrasy Credit. (1977). (1981). These inconsistencies in the literature instigated the emergence of contingency approaches to  leadership to account for differences found across situations. 3 Leadership Research Paper Literature Review Robert Greenleaf was the first writer to describe the phrase servant leader. Task-oriented leaders focus on the group’s work and its goals. He came to two major conclusions. If the situational  variables are  the  most  influential  aspects of leadership success, then  the  training  models employed would seem most important. Transformational leadership is particularly evident  in  successful teams when  coaches increase performance by providing motivation and inspiration. The leader solicits ideas and suggestions from subordinates and invites them to participate in decisions that directly affect them. A contingency model of leadership effectiveness. The  theory hypothesizes that  certain subordinates will respond better to directions when a task is unstructured (e.g., developing building plans) than when a task is structured  (e.g., air traffic controlling) (House  and  Dessler 1974). Path-goal theory is based on the idea that it is the leader’s responsibility to clarify the path, remove obstacles, motivate his or her followers, and  provide feedback to  achieve organizational goals while setting guidelines on how to accomplish those goals. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. He examined 124 studies to determine the characteristic differences between leaders and followers. behavioral, trait, or contingency theories) (Avolio, Reichard, Hannah, et al. New-genre theories, such as transformational leadership, are believed to have strong affective and cognitive components, and they are thus positively linked to such dependent variables as liking, trust, or intellectual engagement. “Leadership appears to be a working relationship among members in a group, in which the leader acquires status through active participation and demonstration of his or her capacity to carry cooperative tasks to completion” (Bass and Stogdill 1990, p. 77). New York: McGraw-Hill. You may think of the actions of effective leaders in accomplishing important goals. As a leadership development tool, networking is designed to reduce the isolation of leaders and help them better understand the organization in which they work. Blake, R. R., & Mouton, J. S. (1984). The second step is an expert’s assessment of the leader’s strengths and weaknesses. They define and structure the roles of their subordinates in order to best obtain organizational goals. And because he takes no credit, credit never leaves him.”. The need for achievement is manifested in the desire to solve problems and accomplish tasks. ), The handbook of social psychology (2nd ed., Vol. The implications of this model are that leaders who possess an awareness of their subordinates’ involvement can improve the decision-making process. The study of leadership is not only a search for understanding the thoughts and actions of leaders, but also an investigation into how to improve the performance and motivation of both  individuals and  groups. People in these cultures often fear that leaders will acquire and abuse power and as a result substantial restraints are placed on the exercise of leadership. The fourth and final step is the implementation of the plan. Excerpt from Research Paper : Introduction The action plan to promote effective organizational change with an emphasis on conflict management policy for my organization has as its main goal the fostering of cohesiveness, communication, and dedication. 1990b. Charismatic leaders are usually quite articulate, with superior debating and persuasive skills. 1990. For example, several Pygmalion studies, with the exception of D.  Brian McNatt’s  (2000)  meta-analysis, have reported weak effect sizes when controlling for gender (Eden et al. A vertical dyad linkage approach to leadership in formal organizations. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Unlocking the Mask: A Look at the Process by which Authentic Leaders Impact Follower Attitudes and Behaviors. Organization analysis: A sociological view. Instead, the relative effectiveness of these two elements often depended on the context of the task. Leadership and management often go together and as such dissertation topics in leadership and management correspond to both aspects. From  interviews with  subordinate employees or  “followers,” they recognized two  general styles: production-oriented and employee-oriented. After decades of research, in which the list of traits grew dramatically, researchers realized that the same person could be effective in one context (Winston Churchill as war leader) but ineffective in another context (Winston Churchill, who was removed from office immediately after the war was over). Although  contingency theories dominated leadership research for decades, a number of writers have questioned the methods used to tests  these  theories  (Yukl  2002). (1977). The leader sets challenging goals and encourages subordinates to attain those goals. This approach has three components. Ethical leaders stimulate followers to think independently and to question the leader’s views. Finally, transactional leaders tend to adopt a laissez-faire approach by avoiding the need to make hard decisions. Members use their implicit theories to sort people into either leaders or followers based on the extent to which others conform to their implicit theory of what a leader should be. The concepts examined provide a framework for understanding current models and examining future directions. Yet, considerable debate exists among researchers regarding an understanding  of  who  exerts influence, what  kind  of power or influence is exerted, when and where leadership takes place, and why and how this phenomenon occurs. 3 Leadership Research Paper Literature Review Robert Greenleaf was the first writer to describe the phrase servant leader. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds. As a  result,  later researchers erroneously concluded that personal traits and attributes alone could not be used to predict future leadership success. As a result, they are more likely to consult with others before making decisions, praise the accomplishment of their followers, and be less directive in their supervision. In their model, they depicted task behavior and relationship behavior as orthogonal dimensions. Charismatic leaders usually have high self-confidence, impression-management skills, social sensitivity, and empathy. Just from $10/Page. Kirkpatrick, Shelley , and Edwin A. Locke. Conceptions and definitions  of  leader and  leadership  have been  reviewed by Carroll Shartle (1956), Bernard Bass (1960), and James Hunt  and colleagues (1982), among others. Free Leadership Essays and Papers. LEADERSHIP RESEARCH PAPER. Leadership is a practical set of skills and traits that enable an individual or an organization to guide other individuals, teams or the entire organization to reach a specific goal and purpose. Implicit leadership theories (Lord & Maher, 1991) provide a cognitive explanation for leadership emergence. Gardner, William , Bruce J. Avolio, Fred Luthans, et al. It’ll make your essay focused and subject-concentrated. Browse other research paper examples for more inspiration. For example, in a series of classic studies, McClelland and his colleagues (see McClelland & Boyatzis, 1982) identified three motives that contribute to leadership. Must subordinates accept the decision to make it work?” By answering such questions and applying the specific rules shown in Table 68.5, a leader is able to eliminate approaches that are likely to fail and to choose the approach that seems most feasible from those remaining. Katherine Miller and Peter Monge (1986) meta-analyzed research on the effects of participation in decision making on satisfaction and productivity. Shaw, Marvin , and Philip R. Costanzo. In. These leaders demonstrate inherent  motivation,  continuous  learning, shared risk, common lifestyle with their followers, competency, trust, and loyalty (Kolditz 2007). In some cultures, leadership is denigrated and regarded with suspicion. Sex differences in social behavior: A social role interpretation. This method generally follows four steps. Authoritarian leaders have to direct on the visi… Some of the disciplines that must contribute to the study of leadership include media and communications. The failure of this approach to recognize the importance of the situation in providing clear distinctions between leaders and followers with regard to their traits caused many scientists to turn their attention elsewhere. Leadership is the process of organizing, influencing, guiding, and motivating a group of people towards attaining a common objective.....Sample Research Paper on Leadership Open Always Email: Call Now! In this theory,  leaders are seen as active transforming agents, changing the  outlook  and  behavior of  their  followers (Burns 1978). If you need a thorough research paper written according to all the academic standards, you can always turn to our experienced writers for help. Just from $10/Page. For example, there are significant variations in most relationships between leadership styles and  behaviors and  the  various indicators of leadership effectiveness, such as morale and  satisfaction (Bryman 1992). Although highly intelligent people may be effective leaders, their followers may feel that large differences in intellectual abilities mean large differences in attitudes, values, and interests. The circumstance in which leader-follower interaction takes place plays a major role in the process of leadership. American Psychologist, 62, 6–16. Typical of external leadership development programs are the seminars offered by the American Management Association. He or she should honor the insights and knowledge of others, believing that one can learn from everyone. (1990). Other changes will come about as a result of new and emerging technologies. The third component is intellectual stimulation. From this data, John Hemphill (1950) quantified 150 behavior descriptors that were incorporated into the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ), which is still used as a measure in leadership research. Vroom, Victor , and Philip W. Yetton. The  relationship and  influence theories have furthered scientific understanding of the leadership phenomena. (2007). With  the  limitations of behavioral approaches for explaining why some leaders are more effective than others, leadership researchers shifted their focus away from what leaders are toward developing a better understanding of what leaders actually do, and how such behaviors relate to leader effectiveness (i.e., how often a leader communicates with followers, what types of reward and discipline methods he or she uses, and the decisions leaders make). They engage in open, two-way communication and are sensitive to their followers’ needs. This sample leadership research paper features: 7900 words (approx. 1986. Longitudinal studies of organizational effectiveness provide support for this idea. Fiedler’s model differentiates between task-oriented  and relationship-oriented leadership styles, but also measures ratings of the person with whom employees are least able to work. . The quality of the leader-member relationship is dependent on several factors. Another form of internal leadership development is networking. Yukl (1998) pointed out that when subordinates perform poorly, leaders tend to be more task oriented, but when subordinates perform well, leaders are more person oriented. Third, situations influence the consequences of leader behavior. On this scale, individuals rate the person with whom they would least want to work on a variety of characteristics. Internal leadership development programs tend to focus on three major areas: the development of social interaction networks both between people within a given organization and between organizations that work with one another, the development of trusting relationships between leaders and followers, and the development of common values and a shared vision among leaders and followers. Hollander developed a transactional leadership model, and  in  its context coined the term idiosyncratic credit. Twenty-two leadership traits (e.g., foresight and decisiveness) were identified as being desirable across all cultures. Leadership models, methods, and applications. Studies of seven organizations found that task-oriented approaches are effective in situations with low task structure, because they help subordinates cope with an ambiguous situation, and ineffective in situations with high task structure, because they appear to be micromanagement. Gender and the emergence of leaders: A meta-analysis. New York: Academic Press. Vroom and Jago (2007) suggest that the importance of the situation is based on three factors: the limited power of many leaders, the fact that applicants for leadership positions go through a uniform screening process that reduces the extent to which they differ from one another, and whatever differences between them still exist will be overwhelmed by situational demands. Finally, achievement-oriented leadership was most effective when subordinates were engaged in ambiguous, nonrepetitive tasks. Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership model sought to answer this question. Bass, B. M. (1997). Although much of the literature on leadership has focused on individual differences, social psychologists such as Phil Zimbardo, in his classic Stanford Prison Experiment, and Stanley Milgram, in his studies of obedience, have demonstrated how important the situation is in determining behavior. The process of managing teams and ensuring their effectiveness requires the presence of the leader who can motivate and provide a vision for their subordinates. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. A leadership style is the leader’s method o… The first stage is role taking. In contrast, person-oriented leaders function best in situations that are only moderately favorable, which is often based on the quality of leader-member relations. If you need a thorough research paper written according to all the academic standards, you can always turn to our experienced writers for help. Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. Weber proposed that charisma can occur when a leader with certain qualities emerges during a crisis to propose a new vision (Weber 1946). The best variant would be to understand the reason of your Leadership . Leadership development programs tend to be of two types: internal programs within an organization, designed to strengthen the organization, and external programs that take the form of seminars, workshops, conferences, and retreats. Which of these approaches is the best? Academy of Management Executive, 6(2), 43–54. Summary. American Psychologist, 62, 17–24. Ask NOT “What should be taught in leadership courses?” but “How can leaders be helped to learn?” Research is needed to understand how leaders learn from their experiences, especially when they are coping with crises (see Avolio, 2007). Consider the case of Jim Jones, the leader of the Peoples Temple, who in 1978 ordered the mass suicide of his 900 followers in what has been called the Jonestown Massacre, or the corrupt leadership of Enron and Arthur Anderson that impoverished thousands of workers and led to the dissolution of a major organization. Idiosyncratic credits are often defined as a tit-for-tat exchange. From a theoretical perspective, a common complaint against these theories is their lack of generalizability to women and to established work groups (White and Locke 2000). published articles on leadership, from 136 in 1970-71, to 258 in 1980-81, 1,105 in 1990-91, and a staggering 10,062 in 2001-02 (an average of 419 articles per month) (Storey, 2004). The French diplomat Talleyrand once said, “I am more afraid of an army of 100 sheep led by a lion than an army of 100 lions led by a sheep.” Effective leadership guides nations in times of peril, promotes effective team and group performance, makes organizations successful, and, in the form of parenting, nurtures the next generation. Ralph Stogdill was the first researcher to summarize the results of these studies. Transformational leaders may employ one or more of the core competencies of transactional leadership to obtain greater outcomes. All of these models have helped to develop an understanding  of  leadership complexities. In W. C. Borman, D. R. Ilgen, & R. J. Klimoski (Eds. They emphasize the importance of purpose, commitment, and ethical decision making. Scholars have debated this question for centuries and in this research paper, so far, we have offered several possible answers. It begins with an agreement between the coach and the leader as to the nature of the coaching relationship, to include what is to be done and how it will be done. Therefore, if a company wants to grow really skilled managers, it should not be in a hurry with the assigning of young managers to responsible positions on the basis of their short-term success. Leadership is a process that emerges from a relationship between leaders and followers. However, theorists using more sophisticated methodological and conceptual approaches have revived this approach. Who becomes the leader? The leader-member relationship generally follows three stages. 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